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Despite severe retribution by the Nazis and Soviets, Polish underground cultural activities, including publications, concerts, live theater, education, and academic research, continued throughout the war. 48 53 In Toruń, all Polish monuments and plaques were torn down. (1997 The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, Regent College Publishing, isbn Cornis-Pope, Marcel; Neubauer, John (2004 History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, John Benjamins Publishing Company, isbn Davies, Norman (1996 Europe: A History, Oxford University Press

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isbn Davies, Norman (2005 God's Playground:. 10 Further directives issued in the spring and early summer reflected policies that had been outlined by Frank and Goebbels during the previous autumn. 75 Soon, however, Stalin decided to re-implement the Russification policies.

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118 Ferguson 2006,. . Retrieved on b c Phayer 2001,. . I do not regard a knowledge of reading as desirable." 22 37 Hans Frank echoed him: "The Poles do not need universities or secondary schools; the Polish lands are to be converted into an intellectual desert." 2 The situation was particularly dire in the former. 65 The Soviets quickly Sovietized the annexed lands, introducing compulsory collectivization. 115 Polish underground artists included Eryk Lipiński, Stanisław Miedza-Tomaszewski, Stanisław Ostoja-Chrostowski, and Konstanty Maria Sopoćko. 112 126 Several Polish painters, mostly soldiers of the Polish II Corps, kept working throughout the war, including Tadeusz Piotr Potworowski, Adam Kossowski, Marian Kratochwil, Bolesław Leitgeber and Stefan Knapp. Sterling, Roth 2005,. . Subsequently, Poland was partitioned again between these two powers and remained under occupation for most of the war. 2) (in Polish Columbia University Press, isbn Drozdowski, Marian Marek; Zahorski, Andrzej, (2004 Historia Warszawy, Jeden Świat, isbn (in Polish) Ferguson, Niall (2006 The War of the World, New York: Penguin Press Gehler, Michael; Kaiser, Wolfram (2004 Christian democracy in Europe since 1945, Routledge, isbn. Destroyed in Warsaw, September 1939.


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This was accomplished through deliberate tactics such as police raids on schools, police inspections of student belongings, mass arrests of students and escort sex massage massasje moss teachers, and the use of students as forced laborers, often by transporting them to Germany as seasonal workers. 187 (in Polish) Tajne Wojskowe Zakłady Wydawnicze in wiem Encyklopedia. The only Polish-language newspaper published in occupied Poland was also closed, and the arrests of Polish intellectuals began. 48 During the war, Warsaw libraries lost about a million volumes, or 30 of their collections. 48 Soon after the occupation began, most libraries were closed; in Kraków, about 80 of the libraries were closed immediately, while the remainder saw their collections decimated by censors. A b (in Polish)Likowska, Ewa (2001). 126 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 60 Hitler and Stalin shared the goal of obliterating Poland's political and cultural life, so that Poland would, according to historian Niall Ferguson, "cease to exist not merely as a place, but also as an idea". 95 96 In 1943 a German report on education admitted that control of what was being taught in schools, particularly rural ones, was difficult, due to lack of manpower, transportation, and the activities of the Polish resistance. 72 73 Some writers, such as Władysław Broniewski, after collaborating with the Soviets for a few months, joined the anti-Soviet opposition. 38 It was expected that Polish children would begin to work once they finished their primary education at age 12. The Germans had almost certainly realized the full scale of the Polish underground education system by about 1943, but lacked the manpower to put an end to it, probably kåte kvinner sexnoveller norsk prioritizing resources to dealing with the armed resistance. 40 In the eastern territories not included in the General Government ( Bezirk Bialystok, Reichskommissariat Ostland and Reichskommissariat Ukraine ) many primary schools were closed, and most education was conducted in non-Polish languages such as Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Lithuanian. 51 Overall, it is estimated that about 10 million volumes from state-owned libraries and institutions perished during the war. 91 Throughout Poland, many other universities and institutions of higher education (of music, theater, arts, and others) continued their classes throughout the war.


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  • Polish culture during World War, iI was suppressed by the occupying powers of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, both of whom were hostile to Poland's people and cultural heritage.
  • Policies aimed at cultural genocide resulted in the deaths of thousands of scholars and artists, and the theft and destruction of innumerable cultural artifacts.
  • The maltreatment of the Poles was one of many ways.

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Many German officials and military officers were initially not given any clear guidelines on the treatment of Polish cultural institutions, but this quickly changed. Polish clergy and religious leaders figured prominently among portions of the intelligentsia that were targeted for extermination. The Canadian Foundation for Polish Studies of the Polish Institute of Arts Sciences. A b Madajczyk 1970,. . 49 Some private publishers, including Stefan Kamieński, Zbigniew Mitzner and the Ossolineum publishing house, paid writers for books that would be delivered after the war.