Im Zweiten Weltkrieg besetzte Hitlers Armee Dänemark und die Briten Island, später dann die USA. Die Einrichtung einer NATO-Basis in dem. Gratis-Versand ab 29€ und Gratis-Retoure für Schuhe und Handtaschen mit Verkauf und Versand durch Amazon. Die militärische Situation Islands wird durch den Umstand geprägt, dass das Land keine regulären Streitkräfte unterhält. Bis stand die Insel unter dänischer Herrschaft, nach der Unabhängigkeit verzichtete man auf die Gründung eigener.
Island Armee Inhaltsverzeichnis
Die militärische Situation Islands wird durch den Umstand geprägt, dass das Land keine der US-Streitkräfte bis Ende September des Jahres. Am September verließen die letzten auf Island stationierten US-Soldaten das Land. Die militärische Situation Islands wird durch den Umstand geprägt, dass das Land keine regulären Streitkräfte unterhält. Bis stand die Insel unter dänischer Herrschaft, nach der Unabhängigkeit verzichtete man auf die Gründung eigener. Island hat keine eigene Armee, ist aber NATO-Mitglied. Es gibt ein Verteidigungsabkommen aus dem Jahre mit den USA, die von bis September. Ressourcen (→Militärische Situation Islands). Die Personalstärke der IDF betrug ca. US-Soldaten, US-Zivilisten sowie isländische Zivilisten. Die meisten Länder auf der Welt haben große Armeen. Doch das gilt nicht für Island, eine Insel im Norden Europas. Um sich zu wehren, nutzen. Amerikanische Soldaten auf der Basis Keflavik, wo sie im Rahmen eines Nato-Auftrags den Luftraum überwachen. (Bild: U.S. Air Force). Wie ein. die US-Armee im Herbst diese Basis in Keflavik, spart Millionen, entlässt isländische Beschäftigte, und das Nato-Gründungsmitglied Island "fühlt sich.
Island hat keine eigene Armee, ist aber NATO-Mitglied. Es gibt ein Verteidigungsabkommen aus dem Jahre mit den USA, die von bis September. Gratis-Versand ab 29€ und Gratis-Retoure für Schuhe und Handtaschen mit Verkauf und Versand durch Amazon. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg besetzte Hitlers Armee Dänemark und die Briten Island, später dann die USA. Die Einrichtung einer NATO-Basis in dem.
These troops were to be second only to the grenadiers in the battalion hierarchy. Their name comes from their original mission. Voltigeurs were to vault upon horses of friendly cavalry for faster movement, an idea which proved impractical if not outright impossible.
Despite this, the voltigeurs did perform a valuable task, skirmishing and providing scouts for each battalion, as well as providing an organic light infantry component for each line regiment.
In training, emphasis was placed on marksmanship and quick movement. Voltigeurs were equipped with large yellow and green or yellow and red plumes for their bicornes.
After , their shakos were lined with yellow and carried similar plumes. They also had yellow epaulettes lined green and a yellow collar on their coats.
Originally, voltigeurs were to be equipped with the short dragoon musket, however in practice, they were equipped with the Charleville model and bayonet.
Like grenadiers, voltigeurs were equipped with a short sabre for close combat, and like grenadiers this was rarely used.
Voltigeur companies could be detached and formed into regiments or brigades to create a light infantry formation.
After , the voltigeur company was situated on the left of the line when in combat. This was traditionally the second highest position of honour in the line of battle.
Fusiliers were armed with a smoothbore , muzzle -loaded flintlock Charleville model musket and a bayonet.
Fusilier training placed emphasis on speed of march and endurance, along with individually aimed fire at close range and close quarters combat.
This differed greatly from the training given to the majority of European armies, which emphasised moving in rigid formations and firing massed volleys.
Many of the early Napoleonic victories were due to the ability of the French armies to cover long distances with speed, and this ability was thanks to the training given to the infantry.
From , each battalion comprised eight fusilier companies. Each company numbered around men. In , one of the fusilier companies was dissolved and reformed as a voltigeur company.
In , Napoleon reorganised the infantry battalion from nine to six companies. The new companies were to be larger, comprising men, and four of these were to be made up of fusiliers, one of grenadiers, and one of voltigeurs.
The fusiliers wore a bicorne, until this was superseded by the shako in The uniform of a fusilier consisted of white trousers, white surcoat and a dark blue coat the habit long model until , thereafter the habit veste with white lapels, red collar and cuffs.
Each fusilier wore a coloured pom-pom on his hat. The colour of this pom-pom changed depending on the company the man belonged to, as military uniforms reached their excessive pinnacle at around this period in time.
After the reorganisation, the first company was issued with a dark green pom-pom, the second with sky blue, the third with orange and the fourth with violet.
The difference laid in the training and the resulting high esprit de corps. After two campaigns, the tallest and bravest chasseurs were chosen to join a carabinier company.
They performed as elite shock troops for the battalion. As with the grenadiers, carabiniers were required to wear moustaches.
They were armed with the Charleville model , a bayonet, and a short sabre. The carabinier uniform consisted of a tall bearskin cap superseded in by a red trimmed shako with a red plume.
They wore the same uniform as the chasseurs, but with red epaulettes. Carabinier companies could be detached to form larger all carabinier formations for assaults or other operations requiring assault troops.
The colpack had a large yellow over red plume and green cords. After , a shako replaced the colpack, with a large yellow plume and yellow lining.
They made up the majority of the formation. They were armed with the Charleville model musket and a bayonet, and also with a short sabre for close combat.
From , each battalion comprising eight chasseur companies. The new companies were to be larger, comprising men, and four of these were to be made up of chasseurs.
The chasseurs had far more ornate uniforms than their contemporaries the fusiliers. Until , they were equipped with a cylindrical shako with a large dark green plume and decorated with white cords.
Their uniform was a darker blue than that of the line regiments, to aid with camouflage while skirmishing. Their coat was similar to that of the line troops, but their lapels and cuffs were also dark blue, and it featured dark green and red epaulettes.
They also wore dark blue trousers and high imitation hussar boots. After , the cylindrical shako was replaced with the standard shako, but was still embellished by white cords.
As with the line fusiliers, chasseur companies were distinguished by coloured pom-poms, but the colours for the different companies changed from regiment to regiment.
A grenadier of the line, c. Cavalry regiments of —1, men were made up of three or four escadrons of two companies each, plus supporting elements. In light cavalry and dragoon regiments, the first company of every regiment's first escadron, was always designated as 'elite', with presumably, the best men and horses.
Consequently, the quality of French cavalry drastically declined. Napoleon rebuilt the branch, turning it into arguably the finest in the world.
Until , it was undefeated in any large engagements above the regimental level. There were two primary types of cavalry for different roles, heavy and light.
The elite among all French heavy cavalry line formations, the two regiments of mounted carabiniers had a very similar appearance with the mounted grenadiers of the Imperial Guard; bearskins, long blue coats, etc.
They were largely used in identical manner to the Cuirassiers, but being initially unarmored, they were less suited for close-quarters, melee combat.
Unarmored heavy cavalry was the norm in Europe during most of the Napoleonic Wars, with the French being the first to reintroduce the back-and-breastplate.
In , appalled by their mauling at the hands of Austrian uhlans, Napoleon ordered that they be given armour. The carabinier's refusal to copy the less elite cuirassiers resulted in them being given special armor, with their helmets and cuirasses being sheathed in bronze for added visual effect.
But this did not prevent them from being defeated by Russian cuirassiers at Borodino in , and panicking before Hungarian hussars at Leipzig the following year.
The heavy cavalry, wearing a heavy cuirass breastplate and helmets of brass and iron and armed with straight long sabers, pistols, and later carbines.
Like medieval knights, they served as mounted shock troops. Because of the weight of their armour and weapons, both the trooper and the horse had to be big and strong, and could put a lot of force behind their charge.
Though the cuirass could not protect against direct musket fire, it could deflect ricochets and shots from long range, and offered some protection from pistol shots.
More importantly, the breastplates protected against the swords and lances of opposing cavalry. Napoleon often combined together all of his cuirassiers and carabiniers into a cavalry reserve, to be used at the decisive moment of the battle.
In this manner, they proved to be an extremely potent force on the battlefield. The British, in particular, who mistakenly believed the cuirassiers were Napoleon's bodyguard, and would later come to adapt their distinctive helmets and breastplates for their own Household Cavalry.
There were originally 25 cuirassier regiments, reduced to 12 by Napoleon initially who later added three more. At the beginning of his rule, most of the cuirassier regiments were severely understrength, so Napoleon ordered the best men and horses to be allocated to the first 12 regiments, while the rest were reorganised into dragoons.
The medium-weight mainstays of the French cavalry, although considered heavy cavalry, who were used for battle, skirmishing, and scouting.
They were highly versatile being armed not only with distinctive straight swords, but also muskets with bayonets enabling them to fight as infantry as well as mounted, though fighting on foot had become increasingly uncommon for dragoons of all armies in the decades preceding Napoleon.
The versatility of a dual-purpose soldier came at the cost of their horsemanship and swordsmanship often not being up to the same standards as those of other cavalry.
Finding enough large horses proved a challenge. Some infantry officers were even required to give up their mounts for the dragoons, creating resentment towards them from this branch as well.
There were 25, later 30, dragoon regiments. In , only 15 could be raised and mounted in time for the Waterloo campaign. These fast, light cavalrymen were the eyes, ears, and egos of the Napoleonic armies.
This opinion was not entirely unjustified and their flamboyant uniforms reflected their panache. Tactically, they were used for reconnaissance , skirmishing, and screening for the army to keep their commanders informed of enemy movements while denying the enemy the same information and to pursue fleeing enemy troops.
Armed only with curved sabres and pistols, they had reputations for reckless bravery to the point of being almost suicidal. It was said by their most famous commander General Antoine Lasalle that a hussar who lived to be 30 was truly an old guard and very fortunate.
Lasalle was killed at the Battle of Wagram at age There were 10 regiments in , with an 11th added in and two more in These were light cavalry identical to hussars in arms and role.
But, unlike the chasseurs of the Imperial Guard and their infantry counterparts, they were considered less prestigious or elite.
Their uniforms were less colourful as well, consisting of infantry-style shakos in contrast to the fur busby worn by some French hussars , green coats, green breeches, and short boots.
They were, however, the most numerous of the light cavalry, with 31 regiments in , 6 of which comprised Flemish, Swiss, Italians and Germans.
They were armed with, as their name indicates, lances along with sabres and pistols. Initially, French ministers of war insisted on arming all lancers identically.
Real battlefield experience, however, proved that the Polish way of arming only the first line with lance while the second rank carried carbines instead was much more practical and thus was adopted.
Lancers were the best cavalry for charging against infantry squares, where their lances could outreach the infantry's bayonets, as was the case with Colborne's British brigade at Albuera in and also in hunting down a routed enemy.
Their ability to scour and finish off the wounded without ever stepping off their saddle created perfect scenes of horror for the enemy.
They could be deadly against other types of cavalry as well, most famously demonstrated by the fate of Sir William Ponsonby and his Scots Greys at Waterloo.
Excluding those of the Guard, there were 9 lancer regiments. French 4th Hussars at the Battle of Friedland. The emperor was a former artillery officer, and reportedly said "God fights on the side with the best artillery.
The French guns were often used in massed batteries or grandes batteries to soften up enemy formations before being subjected to the closer attention of the infantry or cavalry.
Superb gun-crew training allowed Napoleon to move the weapons at great speed to either bolster a weakening defensive position, or else hammer a potential break in enemy lines.
Besides superior training, Napoleon's artillery was also greatly aided by the numerous technical improvements to French cannons by General Jean Baptiste de Gribeauval which made them lighter, faster, and much easier to sight, as well as strengthened the carriages and introduced standard sized calibres.
French cannons had brass barrels and their carriages, wheels, and limbers were painted olive-green. Superb organisation fully integrated the artillery into the infantry and cavalry units it supported, yet also allowed it to operate independently if the need arose.
As the name indicates, these gunners marched alongside their guns, which were, of course, pulled by horses when limbered undeployed. Hence, they travelled at the infantry's pace or slower.
The main operational and tactical units were the batteries or companies of men each, which were formed into brigades and assigned to the divisions and corps.
Battery personnel included not only gun crews, NCOs, and officers, but drummers, trumpeters, metal workers, woodworkers, ouvriers, furriers, and artificers.
They would be responsible for fashioning spare parts, maintaining and repairing the guns, carriages, caissons and wagons, as well as tending the horses and storing munitions.
The cavalry were supported by the fast moving, fast firing light guns of the horse artillery. This arm was a hybrid of cavalry and artillery with their crews riding either on the horses or on the carriages into battle.
Because they operated much closer to the front lines, the officers and crews were better armed and trained for close quarters combat, mounted or dismounted much as were the dragoons.
Once in position, they were trained to quickly dismount, unlimber deploy , and sight their guns, then fire rapid barrages at the enemy.
They could then quickly limber undeploy the guns, remount, and move on to a new position. To accomplish this, they had to be the best trained and most elite of all artillerymen.
The horse batteries of the Imperial Guard could go from riding at full gallop to firing their first shot in just under a minute.
After witnessing such a performance, an astounded Duke of Wellington remarked, "They move their cannon as if it were a pistol! In addition to the batteries assigned to the cavalry units, Napoleon would also assign at least one battery to each infantry corps or, if available, to each division.
Their abilities came at a price, however, as horse batteries were very expensive to raise and maintain. Consequently, they were far fewer in number than their foot counterparts, typically constituting only one fifth of the artillery's strength.
It was a boastful joke among their ranks that the emperor knew every horse gunner by name. Besides better training, horses, weapons, and equipment, they used far more ammunition.
Horse batteries were given twice the ammo ration of the foot, three times that of the Guard. Of all the types of ammunition used in the Napoleonic Wars, the cast iron, spherical, round shot was the staple of the gunner.
Even at long range when the shot was travelling relatively slowly it could be deadly, though it might appear to be bouncing or rolling along the ground relatively gently.
At short range, carnage could result. Round shots were undeniably inaccurate. This was because, despite their name, round shots were never perfectly spherical, nor did they fit their gun barrels exactly.
Air acted on the irregular surface of the projectile. These irregularities invariably threw them off target to some degree. It is often also a matter of confusion as to why a 12pdr shot was so much more effective than a 6pdr shot.
This is because the impact of a shot was not only related to its weight but also to its velocity , which, with a heavier projectile, was much greater at the end of the trajectory.
There were two forms of close-range weapons, which were extremely useful at up to m yards. Grapeshot and canister , or case, were the anti-personnel weapons of choice of the gunner.
Grape was a cluster of large metal spheres tied together around a central spindle and base and normally sewn into a bag, whereas canister was a metal case filled with smaller iron or lead spheres.
The whole purpose of these types of shot was to break up when fired from the gun forming a wide cone of flying metal that acted in the same way as a shotgun cartridge.
For longer-range anti-personnel work, the common shell was also used. This was normally only fired from a mortar or howitzer and was a hollow sphere filled with gunpowder charge.
The top of the shell had thinner walls than the bottom and had an orifice into which was forced a wooden fuse normally made of beech wood. The fuse was designed to be ignited by the discharge of the gun and had a central channel drilled through it and filled with a burning compound.
Before firing, the fuse was cut to a certain length corresponding to the desired time of burning and hammered into the top of the shell by a mallet.
When it arrived over the target, the fuse, if correctly prepared, exploded the main charge, breaking open the metal outer casing and forcing flying fragments in all directions.
Although favoured for siege work, the common shell was not always effective against infantry. The final type of projectile for the field artillery used by the French was the incendiary or carcass a name for an incendiary projectile.
Initially, this device was composed of a metal frame, which was covered with a canvas cover and filled with a special recipe, typically 50 saltpetre parts, 25 sulfur parts, 8 rosin parts, 5 antimony parts, and 5 pitch parts.
However, during the early 19th century, another form of carcass became common and this took the form of a common shell with two or three apertures in its exterior into which a similar composition was put.
Carcass rounds were normally issued only to howitzers or mortars, the suggestion being they were intended to attack towns.
This does not preclude them from being used on the field, but quite what their purpose would have been there is not clear.
It is important to know that not all nations shared the same types of artillery projectiles. For example, the Congreve rocket , inspired from the Mysorean rocket artillery , or the shrapnel shell , which combined the killing effect of grapeshot with the ranges achieved by round shot, were used only by the British Army.
The train d'artillerie , was established by Napoleon in January Its function was to provide the teamsters and drivers which handled the horses that hauled the artillery's vehicles.
Apart from making them look better on parade, this made them subject to military discipline and capable of fighting back if attacked.
The drivers were armed with a carbine, a short sword of the same type used by the infantry, and a pistol.
They needed little encouragement to use these weapons, earning surly reputations for gambling, brawling, and various forms of mischief.
Their uniforms and coats of grey helped enhance their tough appearance. But their combativeness could prove useful as they often found themselves attacked by Cossacks and Spanish and Tyrolian guerillas.
Each train d'artillerie battalion was originally composed of 5 companies. The first company was considered elite and assigned to a horse artillery battery; the three "centre" companies were assigned to the foot artillery batteries and "parks" spare caissons, field forges, supply wagons, etc.
Following the campaigns of , the train was re-organised into eight battalions of six companies each. As Napoleon enlarged his artillery, additional battalions were created, rising to a total of fourteen in In , , and the first thirteen battalions were "doubled" to create 13 additional battalions.
Additionally, after some battalions raised extra companies to handle the regimental guns attached to the infantry.
The Imperial Guard had its own train, which expanded as La Garde' s artillery park was increased, albeit organised as regiments rather than battalions.
At their zenith, in —14, the Old Guard artillery was supported by a company regiment while the Young Guard had a company regiment, one for each of their component artillery batteries.
Many European armies recruited foreign troops, and France was no exception. By the end of the conflict, tens-of-thousands had served.
In , 35, troops from France's allies were used to protect lines of communications and flanks of the main army. In , 27, more troops were called up for similar purposes, plus 20, Saxon troops who were used for mopping up operations against the Prussians.
In the winter of —7, Germans, Poles, and Spaniards helped seize the Baltic ports of Stralsund and Danzig on the army's left flank. For the first time, foreign troops had played a role in a major battle, and done so with distinction.
While the glory of battle went to the cavalry, infantry, and artillery, the army also included military engineers of various types.
Their main contribution was helping the emperor to get his forces across water obstacles by erecting pontoon bridges. The skills of his pontonniers allowed Napoleon to outflank enemy positions by crossing rivers where the enemy least expected and, in the case of the great retreat from Moscow, saved the army from complete annihilation at the Berezina River.
His training, along with their specialized tools and equipment, enabled them to quickly build the various parts of the bridges, which could then be rapidly assembled and reused later.
All the needed materials, tools, and parts were carried on their wagon trains. If they did not have a part or item, it could be quickly made using the mobile wagon-mounted forges of the pontonniers.
A single company of pontonniers could construct a bridge of up to 80 pontoons a span of some to metres long in just under seven hours, an impressive feat even by today's standards.
In addition to the pontonniers , there were companies of sappers , to deal with enemy fortifications.
They were used far less often in their intended role than the pontonniers. However, since the emperor had learned in his early campaigns such as the Siege of Acre that it was better to bypass and isolate fixed fortifications, if possible, than to directly assault them, the sapper companies were usually put to other tasks.
This name, which is still used today, was both a play on the word jeu de mot and a reference to their seemingly magical abilities to grant wishes and make things appear much like the mythical Genie.
One of Napoleon's most quoted lines is his dictum that "An army is a creature which marches on its stomach" , illustrating the vital importance of military logistics.
The supply wagon trains following them carried eight days', but these were to be consumed only in emergency. One man was allotted to grams of bread, grams of biscuits, grams of meat, 30 grams of rice, and 60 grams of grain; one liter of wine was shared between four men.
Insofar as possible, Napoleon encouraged his men to live off the land through foraging and requisition of food which was known as La Maraude.
These women were married to soldiers in their regiments, and acted as sutlers, selling food and drink especially alcohol to the troops.
They were considered "absolutely necessary" to the functioning of the army, and the Consular Decree of 7 Thermidor, Year VIII set their number at four per battalion and two per cavalry squadron.
Additional supplies would be stockpiled and stored at forward bases and depots which Napoleon would establish before the start of his campaigns.
These would then be moved forward as the army advanced. The reliance on foraging was sometimes determined by political pressures. When marching over friendly territory armies were told to "live off what the country can supply", but when marching over neutral territory they were issued with supplies.
The logistical system was also aided by a technological innovation in the form of the food preservation technique invented by Nicolas Appert , which led to modern canning methods.
The medical services had the least glory or prestige, but were required to deal with the full horrors of the war's aftermath.
The established practice was for the wounded to be collected and treated after the battle had ended, by which time many wounded soldiers would have died.
The systems adopted by the French Army in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic period were the forerunners of almost all modern military ambulance and triage systems, being adopted by the armies of most other Western nations in the following decades.
The most significant innovation was the establishment of a system of ambulances volantes flying ambulances in the closing years of the 18th century by Dominique Jean Larrey who would later become Surgeon-General of the Imperial Guard.
His inspiration was the use of fast horse artillery, or "flying artillery", which could manoeuver rapidly around the battlefield to provide urgent artillery support, or to escape an advancing enemy.
The flying ambulance was designed to follow the advance guard and provide initial dressing of wounds often under fire , while rapidly transporting the critically injured away from the battlefield.
The personnel for a given ambulance team included a doctor, quartermaster, non-commissioned officer, a drummer boy who carried the bandages , and 24 infantrymen as stretcher bearers.
Another French military surgeon, Baron L. Percy, implemented another system. He was the first to introduce "a regularly trained corps of field litter bearers, soldiers regularly formed and equipped for the duty of picking up the wounded Percy's system essentially served as a method of moving surgeons and their instruments closer to the engaged forces from where stretcher bearers would retrieve the wounded, rather than placing an emphasis on evacuating the wounded to the rear in a vehicle.
Ismarus was situated on a mountain of the same name, east of lake Ismaris , on the southeast coast of Thrace. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
London: John Murray. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ismara. From Ilion the wind took me to the Cicones In Ismaros. I pillaged the town and killed the men.
The odyssey of Homer. Naturalis Historia. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. Places visited by Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey.
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